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International Citizen’s Petition to the World Bank

Text of the international petition delivered to the World Bank and ICSID

Versión en español 

August 29, 2002
James D. Wolfensohn, President, World Bank
Ko-Yung Tung, Secretary-General, ICSID
David D. Caron, tribunal president
Henri C. Alvarez, tribunal member
José Luis Alberro-Semerena, tribunal member

ICSID Dispute Resolution Panel
c/o International Centre for the Resolution of Investment Disputes
World Bank
1818 H Street, NW
Washington, DC 20433

RE: Demand for public participation

Aguas del Tunari S.A. (Bechtel) v. Republic of Bolivia (Case No. ARB/02/3)

Dear Sirs:

The signers of this letter represent more than 300 civil society organizations and public leaders across five continents. We are writing to you out of our shared commitment to the right of people to participate in the public matters that affect their communities and nations. With this letter we respectfully request that you guarantee public participation in the arbitration between Aguas del Tunari/Bechtel Enterprises and the Republic of Bolivia, a case that directly implicates one of the most fundamental human needs – access to water. This case is one of the most visible and important cases that has come before a World Bank/ICSID tribunal – Aguas del Tunari/Bechtel Enterprises vs. Bolivia.

Background

The history of this case is well-known worldwide. Under direct pressure from the World Bank, the Bolivian government put up for private lease the water system of its third largest city, Cochabamba. In 1999, following a process with just one bidder, a 40-year concession was granted to Aguas del Tunari, a majority-owned subsidiary of Bechtel Enterprises of California set up for that sole purpose. Within weeks of taking over control of the water system, the company raised water rates by an average of more than 50% and in some cases far higher. Families living on a minimum wage of $60 per month (and often less) were ordered by the company to pay as much as 25% of their income just to maintain their water service.

The people of Cochabamba, unable to pay the bills presented them by the company and unable to get any satisfactory relief from the Bolivian government, were forced into massive and widespread public protests. To protect the company’s contract the Bolivian government took extraordinary measures against its people, including a declaration of a state of emergency, the suspension of constitutional rights, and the violent repression of the protests, resulting in more than 100 injuries and the death of one 17 year old boy, Victor Hugo Daza. In April 2000, with the government unable to stop the protests, the company abandoned its management of the water system and left the country.

The basis of our demand for participation

To be clear, in our view the World Bank/ICSID should not be handling this case to begin with. The World Bank/ICSID system is one of what the New York Times recently called “secret trade courts” (“A Fairer Trade Bill” New York Times editorial, July 25, 2002), in which urgent public matters are decided behind a shroud of secrecy, without full information and without any of the opportunities for public vigilance and participation that are the basis for public legitimacy. Such public involvement is essential to the legitimate resolution of disputes, like this one, that directly affect issues of fundamental public concern.

Moreover, the World Bank/ICSID handling of this case is even more unjustified for two specific reasons unique to this case:

First, the World Bank is by no means a neutral party in this matter. It is well-documented that it was the World Bank itself which directly forced the government of Bolivia to privatize the water system of Cochabamba, making that privatization a condition for both debt relief and funds for water system expansion and thereby setting the events of this case in motion. Additionally, during the water revolt in Bolivia in April 2000, World Bank president James Wolfensohn personally made public comments about the case, justifying water price increases. Further, despite the Bank’s role in the history of this case, Mr. Wolfensohn violated one of the most important principles of objectivity when he directly appointed the President of the arbitration tribunal that will decide the case. These facts have created strong and well-justified public doubt that ICSID can resolve this dispute fairly.

Second, Bechtel/Aguas del Tunari’s claim of ICSID jurisdiction rests entirely on a bogus claim of being a Dutch corporation (and therefore benefiting from Holland’s bilateral investment treaty with Bolivia which invokes ICSID as arbitrator of any trade disputes between the two countries). Bechtel/Aguas del Tunari moved its registration to Holland only after it signed its water contract with Bolivia, in a forum-shopping exercise already repudiated by the Dutch government.

Given, however, that the World Bank/ICSID has acceded to Bechtel/Aguas del Tunari’s request to take this case, this makes it all the more imperative that the process be opened to public participation and scrutiny, as laid out in this letter.

We would also note that Bechtel/Aguas del Tunari has already made plain their willingness to advance fraudulent information about the case. In response to widespread public and press attention to the company’s rate hikes, a Bechtel Enterprises spokeswoman, Ms. Gail Apps, widely distributed the following statement to members of the public and the media inquiring abut the rate increases it imposed, “For the poorest people in Cochabamba rates went up little, barely 10 percent.” Data drawn directly from the water company’s computers make clear that the rate increase in question averaged more than 50%.

If Bechtel/Aguas del Tunari is willing to assert clearly fraudulent information such as this on the public record, one can only imagine what misinformation the company will be willing to provide to the tribunal behind closed doors and away from public scrutiny. For this reason as well, civil society groups directly knowledgeable about the facts at hand must be able to participate actively in the case, to assure that the tribunal receives a complete and accurate rendering of those facts.

The methods of participation proposed

For all these reasons, we propose that the Tribunal adopt the following procedures:

1) Grant the Petition of Affected Individuals and Organizations to Participate in the Case

We call on the Tribunal to grant the petition to participate made by key Bolivian leaders, including Oscar Olivera of The Coalition for Water and Life; Father Luis Sánchez, a member of Cochabamba’s public water company board of directors (SEMAPA); Omar Fernández of the Cochabamba Federation of Irrigators; and Congressman Jorge Alvarado, President of the Cochabamba delegation of the Bolivian Congress. These leaders, represented by able and experienced Bolivian and U.S. counsel, represent tens of thousands of people with a direct stake in the case. Their participation is essential to legitimate resolution of this dispute.

2) Publicly Disclose all Documents Filed with the Tribunal

In order to provide for adequate public scrutiny of the claims made by the two parties, especially given the record of misinformation, we call on the Tribunal to place into the public record all documents filed with the Tribunal.

3) That the Tribunal Members Travel to Bolivia to Receive Public Testimony

It is clearly within the purview of the tribunal to come directly to Cochabamba, Bolivia and receive testimony from the people directly affected by the case and who have important information to share with the tribunal:

“…the Tribunal may, if it deems it necessary at any stage of the proceedings…visit the scene connected with the dispute, and conduct such inquiries there as it may deem appropriate. [Convention On The Settlement of Investment Disputes Between States and Nationals of Other States: Powers And Functions Of The Tribunal, Section 3, Article 43].

We call on the panel to invoke that power in this case and to travel to Cochabamba to receive appropriate public testimony relevant to the case.

4) That the tribunal hearings be made completely open to the public.

All tribunal hearings should be open to the public, including making all transcripts of the testimony public, as well as all tribunal decisions and awards.

Conclusion

No ICSID case has ever drawn the public attention that this case has and will continue to, and for good reason. The actions of Aguas del Tunari/Bechtel in Bolivia left a city of more than 600,000 people in turmoil for four months. They left hundreds injured and one young boy dead, and jeopardized thousands of peoples’ access to the most fundamental element of life. This case is about far more than the calm transfer of assets from one economic institution to another. It is a matter of deep importance to far more than the two parties who now have formal access to the process. We hope the Tribunal will grant our requests and the petition to participate, and will honor the legitimate right of civil society to also have an active and constructive role in this case.

Sincerely,

Argentina

Enrique Arceo, Instituo de Estudios sobre Estado y participación, Central de los Trabajadores Argentinos

Australia

Dr. Patricia Ranald, Convenor, Australian Fair Trade and Investment Network

Neville Spencer, Coordinator, Committees In Solidarity with Latin America and the Caribbean John Hermann, Economic Reform

Australia

Terrie Templeton, Community Information Association

Tony Beck, National Secretary, Finance Sector Union

Margo Beilby, Co-Convenor, Greens WA

Toshi Knell, Director, Ratifiers for Democracy

Brian Jenkins, Honorary Secretary, Stop MAI Coalition

Austria

Matthias Reichl, Center for Encounters and Active Non-Violence

Bangladesh

Dr. Qasem Chowdhury, Coordinator, People’s Health Movement Secretariat

Belgium

Gebrand Nootens, Presidente, Boliviacentrum Antwerpen

Wim Melis, Programas Internacionales – Bolivia y Perú, Broederlijk Delen

Eric Toussaint, President, Committee for the Cancellation of the Third World Debt (CADTM)

Rudy De Meyer, Diensthoofd Studie en Publicaties Koepel van de Vlaamse Noord-Zuidbeweging

Janice Goodson-Foerde, General and Advocacy Focal Point for International Gender and Trade Network-Europe (IGTN-E)

Janice Goodson-Foerde, International Coalition for Development and Action (ICDA)

Leida Rijnhout, Coordinadora, Organisatie Vlaams Overleg Duurzame Ontwikkeling

Xavier Declercq, Mobilization manager, Oxfam-Solidarity

Bolivia

Rose Marie de Achá, Representante, Acción Andina

Luis Sanchez Gomez, President, Asamblea Permanente de los Derechos Humanos de Cochabamba (APDH-C)

Gabriel Herbas, Bolivian Forum on the Environment

Luis Perez Alanoca, Coordinator, Bolivian Joining Hands for Life Network/Red Boliviania Uniendo Manos por la Vida (UMANIDA)

Tom Kruse, Center for Agriculture and Labor Development Studies (CEDLA)

Arturo Reynoso Bolanos, Director, Centro Cuarto Intermedio (CCI)

Miguel A. Miranda Hernandez, Director, Centro de Asesoramiento

Maria Lohman, Directora, Centro de Documentación e Información (CEDIB)

Marcela Olivera, Coaltion for the Defense of Water and Life (La Coordinadora)

Omar Fernandez, Cochabamba Federation of Irrigators

Oscar Olivera, Federation of Factory Workers and Coalition for the Defense of Water and Life (La Coordinadora)

Pablo Solon, Director, Fundacion Solon

Elizabeth Peredo, Responsable de Mujer, Identidad y Trabajo, Fundacion Solon

Integral de la Mujer “Pro – Futuro”

Lee Cridland, Director, Jakaña

Mary Aulson and Judith Esmenda, Global Concerns Commision, Maryknoll Congregation

Ruben Martinez Flores, Coordinador Nacional De Pastoral Universitaria

Jorge Alvarado, President of the Cochabamba delegation of the Bolivian Congress

Father Luis Sanchez, member, board of directors, SEMAPA (public water company)

Anna Malavisi, Directora Oficina en Bolivia, Servicio Internacional Britanico

Nidia Bustillos Rodriguez, Stichting Ayni

Jim Shultz, executive director, The Democracy Center

Andy and Andrea Baker, Bolivia Field Directors, World Made Flesh

Brazil

Dr. Carlos Walter Porto Gonçalves, Associação dos Geógrafos

Dieter Wartchow, Companhia Riograndense de Saneamento (CORSAN)

Tiago Pariz Lorenzoni, Director, Human Before Profit

Canada

Jack Thornburgh, Chair, Alberni Social Justice Group

Aimee Van Drimmelen, Chairperson, Canadian Federation of Students, Quebec

Kenneth V. Georgetti, President, Canadian Labour Congress

Judy Darcy, National President, Canadian Union of Public Employees

Sheryle Carlson, Director at Large, Citizens for Peaceful Communities

Brian Payne, President, Communications, Energy and Paperworkers Union of Canada (CEP)

Consumers’ Association of Canada

Maude Barlow, Council of Canadians, Canada

David Diamond, Headlines Theatre

Fred Muzin, President, Hospital Employees’ Union (CUPE)

Lynn Foster, Executive Secretary, International Society for Peace and Human Rights

Mark Achbar, President, Invisible Hand Productions Inc.

Marie-Paule Brisson and Sebastien De Marre, West Kootenay Latin American Support Group

David McDonald, Municipal Services Project

Don Warthe, Social Justice Chair, Nelson and District Teachers’ Association

Naomi Klein, author, “No Logo”

Tony Clarke, Director, Polaris Institute

Joan Frances Tuck, President, Social Justice Committee

Jamie Dunn, Blue Planet Project Campaigner, The Council of Canadians

Jean Philippe Sapinski, Graduate Students Association of the Department of Anthropology, University of Montreal

C.D. Muldrew, President, Veterans against Nuclear Arms- Manitoba Branch

Colombia

Comite de Movilizacion del Foros Social Mundial en Colombia

Costa Rica

Isaac Rojas, COECO Ceiba-Amigos de la Tierra

Croatia

Drazen Simlesa, Professor, Green Network of Alternative Groups

Ecuador

Carlos Zorrilla, President, Defensa y Conservacion Ecologica de Intag

El Salvador

Angel Ibarra, Unidad Ecologica Salvadorena, UNES

France

Nicolas Guihard, Campaign Coordinator, Agir Ici

Martine Le Bec-Cabon, Présidente, Association H2O

Jean-Luc Touly, Trésorier, Association pour un Contrat Mondial de l’Eau (ACME)

Biens publics à l’échelle mondiale

Sébastien Godinot, IFI reform campaign, Friends of the Earth, France

Hans Engelberts, General Secretary, Public Services International

Franck Poupeau, Sociologist, Raisons d’agir

Germany

Carol Bergin, founding member, Initiative Colibri

Rev. Ulrich Duchrow, Kairos Europa

Moira Schmidt, Co-Founder, Reclaiming Earth Activists (REA) Network in Europe

Ghana

Patrick Apoya, Community Partnerships For Health and Development, Ghana

Rudolf Amenga-Etego, Integrated Social Development Centre, Ghana

Charles Abugre, Integrated Social Development Centre, Ghana

Mr. Mawuli Dake, Jubilee 2000 Afrika Campaign

Denis Chirawurah, Peoples’s Actions For Community Transformation, Ghana

Holland

Frank van Scahik, A Seed Europe

Willem Verhaak, Researcher, Academic Institute of the Green Left Party

Wiert Wiertsema, Policy Director, Both ENDS

Comité tegen de Straffeloosheid in Chili

Berrie Jurg, Friends of the Earth, Netherlands

Johan Frijns, Coordinator International Financial Institutions Programme, Friends of the Earth International

H.I.J.O.S. Nederland

Maja Haanskorf, Editor in Chief, La Chispa

Edith van Overveld, Latin America Centre

Organisatie Latijns Amerika Activiteiten

OSA-Ontwikkelingseducatie Stedenbanden Amsterdam

Marianne Koeman, Voorzitter (Presidente), SNKP-Bolivia

Harry van Bommel, Socialistische Partij (Socialist Party)

Stichting Promolat/Noticias

Stichting Stedenband Amsterdam-Managua

Annelies Borsboom, Acting Director, Transnational Institute

Saul Landau, Fellow, Transnational Institute

Daniel Chavez, Transnational Institute

Vrouweninformatiepunt Nicaragua, Holland

Kees Hudig, Stafmember, Xminus Y Solidarity Fund

Hong Kong

Kevin Li, Globalisation Monitor

India

S.M.Prithiviraj, Executive Director, Community Awareness Research Education

Maya Jani, Director, Diverse Women for Diversity

K T Suresh, Coordinator, Equations

D.Albert, Coordinator, Human Rights & Legal Services Unit, Indian Social Institute

Dr. Vineeta Gupta, General Secretary, Insaaf International

Afsar H.Jafri, Deputy Director, NAVDANYA

Martin Macwan, Director, Navsarjan

Dr. Vandana Shiva, Director, Research Foundation for Science, Technology and Ecology

Indonesia

Bagus Muhammad, General Secretary, Association for Civil Society Empowerment

Irma Yanny, Chairperson, Federation of Indonesian Peasant Union (FSPI)

Binny Buchori, Executive Secretary, Forum on Indonesian Development (INFID)

Ireland

Jean Somers, Coordinator, Debt and Development Coalition

Suzanne Ryder, Mercy International Justice Network

Italy

Pia Valota, ACU international relations, ACU Associazione Consumatori Utenti ONLUS

Elvira Dizon, JPIC Coordinator, Franciscan Missionaries of Mary

Riccardo Petrella, International Committee for the Global Water Contract

Japan

Consumers Union of Japan

Kyoko Ishida, Program Coordinator, Japan Center for a Sustainable Society

Toshiyuki Doi, Wekong Watch

Malaysia

Rosli Omar, Committe member SOS

Petaling Jaya, Selangor and Federal Territory Consumer’ Associations

Mexico

María Eugenia Romero, Executive Director, Equidad de Género: Ciudadanía, Trabajo y Famila

Antonio Valenzuela, Director, Indigenas Sin Fronteras

Dr. Alejandro Villamar, Directorate Member, Red Mexicana de Accion Frenteal Libre Comercio (RMALC)

Ana Esther Ceceña, Directora, Revista Chiapas

Dr. Enrique de la Garza Toledo, Director of Graduate Studies, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana

New Zealand

Susie Lees, President, GE Free New Zealand in Food and Environment

Rod Donald, MP; Jeanette Fitzsimons, MP, Co-Leaders, Green Party Of Aotearoa

Paul Bruce, Coordinator, Latin America Solidarity Committee of Aotearoa

Dr Meriel Watts, Co-coordinator, Pesticide Action Network

Alison White, Co-convenor, Safe Food Campaign

Adrienne Ross, The Peace Foundation, New Zealand

Penny Bright, Media Spokesperson, Water Pressure Group

Norway

Helene Bank, Vice President, Friends of the Earth, Norway

Pakistan

A. Ercelawn and M. Nauman, Creed Alliance

Naeem Iqbal, Pakistan Network of Rivers Dams and People

Khawar Mumtaz, Coordinator, Shirkat Gah

Peru

Rev. Stephen T. De Mott, Coordinator, Maryknoll Fathers and Brothers

Philippines

Josua Mata, Secretary General, Alliance of Progressive Labor

Portugal

José Manuel Pureza, Coordinador, Núcleo de Estudios para la Paz, Universidad de Coimbra

Sierra Leone

Kissinor T.Sengu, National Co-ordinator, Generating Group Empowerment Through Learning

South Africa

Dr. Dale T. McKinley, Anti-Privatisation Forum, Johannesburg

Trevor Ngwane, Secretary, Anti-Privatisation Forum

Patrick Bond, Co-director, Municipal Services Project, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg

Sri Lanka

Sarath Fernando, Co-Secretary, Movement for National Land and Agricultural Reform

Father Paul Caspersz, sj; Founder and First Coordinator, Satyodaya Centre for Social Research and Encounter

Sweden

Hans Nolén Cargo, Coordinador, Cooperación Tecnica Sueca

Mats Ehn Cargo, Profesor, Instituto de educación popular de Farnebo

Switzerland

Action Populaire Contra la Mondialisation, Geneve

Marianne Hochuli, Berne Declaration Switzerland

Madeleine Bolliger, Swiss Coalition of Development Organizations

Tanzania

Dr. Brian Cooksey, Director, Tanzania Development Research Group

Thailand

Nicolla Bullard, Focus on the Global South

United Kingdom

Alex Wilks, Coordinator, Bretton Woods Project

Aubrey Meyer, Director, Global Commons Institute

Ian Shearer Fylde, Real World Group

Dougie Kinnear, Kirkcaldy and District Trades Union Council

Mary Keynes, Hon Secretary, Leeds Central World Development Movement

G. Abbott, Communications Officer, Newcastle Association of University Teachers

Bob Welch, Convener, North Staffordshire World Development Action Group

John Tilley, National Executive Member, RMT

John Wilkinson, Policy and Learning Officer, Save the Children

Kate O’Connell, Chairman, The Gaia Trust

Janine Booth, Political Officer, London Transport Regional Council, Union of Rail Maritime and Transport Workers

Paul Hampton, Workers’ Liberty Britain

United States

Wendy Schaetzel Lesko, Executive Director, Activism 2000 Project

John Iverson, President, ACT UP/East Bay

Stephen Bartlett, Latin American Liason, Agricultural Missions, Inc. (AMI)

Jim Jontz, Executive Director, Alliance for Sustainable Jobs and the Environment (ASJE)

Derrick Hindery, Amazon Watch

Martin Garate, Associate General Secretary for International Programs, American Friends Service Committee

Jason Tockman, Director of International Trade Program, American Lands Alliance

Carla Eliana Godoy, President, Art For Change

ADBwatch, Asia-Pacific Island Alert

Dr. David Ozonoff, Chair, Organization Department of Environmental Health, Boston University School of Public Health

Severina Rivera, Director, Campaign for Labor Rights

Michael Berg, Board Member, Carolina Peace Resource Center

Peter Galvin, California and Pacific Director, Center for Biological Diversity

Meredith A. Hartwell, Executive Assistant, Center for Biological Diversity

Beverly Bell, Director, Center for Economic Justice

Joanne M. Sanders, President, Central Indiana Chapter/Coalition of Labor Union Women

Nancy C. Alexander, Citizens’ Network on Essential Services

Gwendolyn Debrow, Green Party State Committee, Central Queens Green Party

Cristopher Lofstrom, Program Associate, Community Greens

Elizabeth Broad, Connecticut Fair Trade Campaign

Marge VanCleef, Coodinator, Connecticut Peace Coalition/New Haven

James A. Guest, President, Consumers Union of the United States, Inc.

Adam Mendelson, Research Associate, Council on Hemispheric Affairs

Rev. Walter Stark, Cumberland Countians for Peace and Justice

Shirley Novak, 2nd Vice President, Doctors for Global Health

Diana Robertson, Earth Dancer

Sasha McInnes Founder, Fair Trade Travel

Philip McManus, Chair, Fellowship of Reconciliation Task Force on Latin America and the Caribbean

Njoki Njoroge Njehu, Director, 50 Years Is Enough Network

Teresa Mcgill, President, Friends Of Bolivia Inc.

Brent Blackwelder, President, Friends of the Earth

David Amdur and Catherine Benedict, Co-coordinators, FTAA Task Force of the Boston Global Action Network

Kevin Danaher, Co-Founder, Global Exchange

Carleen Pickard, FTAA Campaign Coordinator, Global Exchange

Martin Cibulka, Schuyler D. Erle, Susan Lamont and R. Miles Mendenhall, Member Organizers, Global Justice/Direct Action Network of Sonoma County

Aaron Lehmer, Director, Grassroots Globalization Network

Paula Palmer, Executive Director, Global Response

Clem Wittman, President, Greater Kansas City Fair Trade Coalition

Mary Pjerrou, Co-chair, Greenwood Watershed Association in Elk, California

Todd Jailer, Publications Director, Hesperian Foundation

Robert Pedersen, Trade and Labor Coordinator, Indiana Alliance for Democracy

Mark Ritchie, Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy

Cam Duncan, Inter-American Regional Secretary, Public Services International

Jerry Mander, President, International Forum on Globalization

Kay Lawson, Co-Editor, International Political Science Review

Brian Stefan Szittai, Coordinator, InterReligious Task Force on Central America (IRTF)

Patrick McCully, Campaigns Director, International Rivers Network

Tom Lewis, Coordinator, Latin American Relations, International Socialist Organization

Sarah Anderson, Director, Global Economy Project, Institute for Policy Studies

Sharon Whytal, Kindness Without Borders

Leigh Rosenberg, Madison Fair Trade Action Alliance

Gabriel Camacho, President, Massachusetts Chapter, Labor Council for Latin American Advancement, AFL-CIO

Ellen Taylor, Lost Coast League

Joydip Kundu, President, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Chapter of Amnesty International

Jerold Hubbard, Chairman, Morton County Citizens for Responsible Government

Dale Sorensen, Director, Marin Interfaith Task Force on Central America

Marie Dennis, Director, Maryknoll Office for Global Concerns

Gihan Perera, Miami Workers Center

Larry Weiss, Coalition Coordinator, Minnesota Fair Trade Coalition

Seamus P. Finn, Justice/Peace and Integrity of Creation Office, Missionary Oblates of Mary Immaculate

Jean Norris, Chair, Global Concerns Committee, Montclair Presbyterian Church

Charles Fields, Social Action and Policy Coordinator, National Community Building Network

Amy Leach, Founder, Neighbors At Risk

Sarah C. Aird, Executive Director, Network in Solidarity with the People of Guatemala (NISGUA)

Roy Morrison, Director of Cooperative Development, New Hampshire Consumers Utility Cooperative

Michael Berg, Co-Director, New Haven Community Center

Diana Bohn, Co-coordinator, Nicaragua Center for Community Action

Katherine Hoyt, Ph.D., National Co-Coordinator, Nicaragua Network

Pat Logan, New York Committee In Solidarity With The People Of El Salvador

Rita A. Clark, Director, Nicaragua-United States Friendship Office

Rev. Charles Lord, Obed Watershed Association

Frances Cunningham, Director, Office for World Mission at the Archdiocese of Milwaukee

Rosemary Huddleston, International Mission Coordinator, Office for World Mission at the Archdiocese of Milwaukee

Vivian Stockman, Outreach Coordinator, Ohio Valley Environmental Coalition

Ravi Khanna, Director, 1World Communication

Robert Waldrop, Founder, Oscar Romero Catholic Worker House

Christopher Mackin, President, Ownership Associates, Inc.

Raymond C. Offenheiser, President, Oxfam America

David Davis, Director, Pella Productions

Leon Oboler, State Organizer, Pennsylvania Fair Trade Coalition

Jessica Hamburger, Program Coordinator, Pesticide Action Network North America

Conrad Miller M.D., Founder, Physicians For Life

Elizabeth Keifer, Vice President, Post-secondary Education Assistance Corporation

Sara Grusky, International Water Working Group, Public Citizen

Lori Wallach, Director, Public Citizen’s Global Trade Watch

Frank Vardeman, Resource Center of the Americas

Rick Rowden, Researcher, RESULTS Educational Fund

Heather Fenney, Policy Coordinator, Rural Coalition/Coalicion Rural

Dr. D. K. Cinquemani, Chair, Safe Earth Alliance

Diana Bohn, Treasurer, San Francisco Debt Cancellation Coalition

Andy Sekara, Outreach Coordinator, San Francisco Bay Area Progressive Challenge

Peggy Rose, General Manager, San Francisco Mime Troupe

Coordinating Team, Joining Hands against Hunger Project, San Francisco Presbytery

Hope Fauna Bohanec, Outreach Coordinator, Santa Rosa Community Market

Mary Bull, Coordinator, Save the Redwoods/Boycott the Gap

Joan May, director, Sheep Mountain Alliance

Sisters Tina Geiger, RSM; Marilee Howard, RSM; Susan Severin, RSM, Institute Justice Office, Sisters of Mercy of the Americas

Sister Nadine Flott, CPPS, Leadership Team, Sisters of the Most Precious Blood

Tom Stickel, Stickel Christian Foundation

Catherine Austin Fitts, President, Solari, Inc.

Amanda Martin, President, South Carolina Returned Peace Corps Volunteers

Milton Fisk, South Central Indiana Jobs with Justice

Anthony Arnove, Editor, South End Press

James Ricker, Club President, Students Against Sweatshops, San Diego State University

Jane Kilmer, Students for Economic Justice at Michigan State University

Dante Strobino, Founder, North Carolina State University Chapter, Student Peace Action Network (SPAN)

George Elfie Ballis, Executive Director, SunMt

Andrew Kang Bartlett, Sustainable Agriculture of Louisville

Daphne Wysham, Sustainable Energy and Economy Network

Eric Rubin, Executive Director, Tampa Bay Action Group

Elizabeth Barclay, The Asia Pacific Environmental Exchange

Rev. Bob Matthews, Executive Director, The Center for the Urban Spirit

Karen Hansen-Kuhn, Trade Program Coordinator, The Development GAP

Beth Burrows, President/Director, The Edmonds Institute

Mitchell Cohen, Elizabeth Eytchison and Barb Chicherio, Coordinating Committee, The Greens/Green Party USA

Al Giordano, Publisher, The Narco News Bulletin

Nettie Hoge, Executive Director, The Utility Reform Network

Erin Quies, Program Director, Tierra Learning Center

Gena Kruger, Convenor, Toledo Area Committee on Central America

Steve Lippman, Senior Social Research Analyst, Trillium Asset Management Corporation

Donald B. Clark, United Church of Christ Network for Environmental and Economic Responsibility

Rev. Douglas B. Hunt, Washington Office Director, United Church of Christ Network for Environmental and Economic Responsibility

Jonathan Kissam, Secretary-Treasurer, District 2, United Electrical, Radio & Machine Workers of America (UE)

Bruce J. Klipple, Secretary Treasurer, United Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers of America (UE)

Mike Prokosch, Coordinator, Global Economy Program, United for a Fair Economy

Trudy Manderfeld, United Steelworkers, Local 12273

Joseph Paul Muriana, President, University Neighborhood Housing Program, Inc.

Taleigh Smith, Coordinator, Upper West Side-Tipitapa Sister City Project

George Neckel, Utah Jobs with Justice

Steve Watrous, Coordinator, Wisconsin Fair Trade Campaign

Steven Bennett, Executive Director, Witness for Peace/Accion Permanente por la Paz

Swaneagle Harijan, Coordinator, Women in Black Sterns County

Nathan Hall, Student Organizer, Youth Against Sweatshops

Zambia

Muyunda Ililonga, Executive Secretary, Zambia Consumers Association


cc: Alejandro Escobar, ICSID general counsel
Claudia Frutos-Peterson, ICSID counsel